The U.S. allows foreigners coming to the U.S. for an "exchange" experience (both academic and work). Some entities use this "exchange" with a twist - by promoting an "exchange" experience, these entities attract a lot of "cheap" labor for the sole purpose of working in the U.S. temporary.
The key is none of what you have mentioned exists as:
a. The U.S. does not issue a working holiday visa;
b. Even you consider the so-called exchange visa as a working holiday visa, you don't have the freedom like other working holiday visa. Everything must be in compliance with the sponsoring organization.
For example, let's say you join a language exchange program. During that time, you will be allowed to travel around in your free time. But you won't be allowed to work and discontinue the language program.